We hypothesize that the anti-inflammatory response induced by PG2 can counter the inflammatory response induced by ICH, which in turn enhances the recovery of neurologic function.
The PG2 sterile powder was stored in the clinical trial pharmacy department of China Medical University Hospital.
In addition, several factors may induce secondary brain damage: (1) the presence of heme and iron, from erythrocyte lysis and free hemoglobin, which can incite reactive oxygen species production; (2) the disruption of the BBB, which can cause leucocyte infiltration; and (3) the presence of intracerebral blood, which can induce microglial activation, systemic immune cell infiltration, and the generation of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and other chemokines.
Inflammatory response thus plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of ICH.
The study also abided by the International Conference on Harmonization and Good Clinical Practice guidelines.
The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) both female and male patients, (2) between the ages of 30 and 80 years, (3) admission within 24 h of ICH onset, (4) first incidence of hemorrhagic stroke with the hematoma located in the putamen, and (5) a signed informed consent by the patient or their legal representative.
PG2 is an infusible polysaccharide extracted from Astragalus membranaceus, which is a Chinese herb traditionally used for stroke treatment.