On 19 January 2005, the European Space Agency and the Russian Federal Space Agency agreed to launch Soyuz/ST rockets from the Guiana Space Centre.
The first operational launch happened on 21 October 2011, bearing the first two satellites in Galileo global positioning system.
All Soyuz rockets use RP-1 and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellant, with the exception of the Soyuz-U2, which used Syntin, a variant of RP-1, with LOX.
Soyuz-U was retired in 2017, Soyuz rocket assembly: the first and second stages are in the background, already joined together; the third stage is in the lower left corner of the image.This consisted of a slightly modified Soyuz U combined with the Fregat upper stage, with a capacity of up to 1,350 kg to geostationary transfer orbit.In April 1997, Starsem obtained a contract from the European Space Agency to launch two pairs of Cluster 2 plasma science satellites using the Soyuz-Fregat.The assembled rocket is transported to the launch site in its horizontal state and then raised.This is different from the vertical assembly of, for example, the Saturn V, and is one of the features that makes Soyuz cheaper to prepare for launch.Between February 1, 2003 and July 26, 2005 with the grounding of the U. Space Shuttle fleet, Soyuz was the only means of transportation to and from the International Space Station.