Typically, it is perceived as an extension of Japan's growing focus on materialism, much of which is what critics claim is the cause of enjo-kōsai.
Chikako accidentally meets their teacher Onizuka on one of these dates.
Anthropologist Laura Miller argues in her research that the majority of enjo-kōsai dates consists of groups of girls going with a group of older men to a karaoke bar for several hours and being paid for their time.
Furthermore, in a 1998 survey by the Asian Women's Fund, researchers found that fewer than 10 percent of all high school girls engage in enjo-kōsai and over 90 percent of the girls interviewed attested to feeling uncomfortable with the exchange or purchase of sexual services for money.
The most common connotation is that it is a form of child prostitution whereby participating girls sell their bodies in exchange for designer goods or money.
However, enjo-kōsai is distinct from the most basic definition of prostitution (whereby a person attains money through the exchange of sexual acts) and insist that these other activities define enjo-kōsai.
Control over their bodies and means to support themselves is a new kind of independence for these girls.